Tag Archives: PlaNYC

Existing Building Energy Consumption: Current Situations, Trends, Legislature and Solutions (Series Post #7: PlaNYC Local Law 84 and 87)

Energy use in NYC buildings contributes to 74% of citywide GHG emissions through the use of heating fuel, natural gas, electricity and steam. Energy expenses are up to $15 billion per year; therefore, NYC needed to act. NYC responded to this problem with the development of PlaNYC. In particular I’d like to focus on Local Law 84: Benchmarking (LL84) and Local Law 87: Energy Audits & Retro-commissioning (LL87).

“Released in 2007, PlaNYC was an unprecedented effort undertaken by Mayor Bloomberg to prepare the city for one million more residents, strengthen our economy, combat climate change, and enhance the quality of life for all New Yorkers. The Plan brought together over 25 City agencies to work toward the vision of a greener, greater New York. Since then, we have made significant progress towards our long-term goals.”

LL84 began in 2009 and requires owners of large buildings to annually measure and report their energy consumption through the previously mentioned benchmarking practice. In July, they upgraded the online energy star reporting tool (www.energystar.gov/portfoliomanager). They also recently released their second year benchmarking scores (read the report here: http://www.nyc.gov/html/gbee/html/plan/ll84_scores.shtml).

The first energy efficiency reports for LL87 are due at the end of this year. Due dates are based on a building’s tax block id #. Those ending in 3 are required to comply in 2013, those ending in 4 are required to comply in 2014 and so on and so forth. LL87 requires that all buildings 50,000 sf or larger undergo not only an energy audit but also retro-commissioning.
LL87 requires the following base building energy systems to be investigated:
•    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning
•    Electrical and light
•    Domestic hot water
•    Building envelope
•    Conveying systems

The approved certified engineers that can help one comply with LL87 include:
•    Certified Commissioning Professional (CCP)
•    Certified Building Commissioning Professional (CBCP)
•    Commissioning Process Management Professional (CPMP)
•    Accredited Commissioning Process Authority Professional (ACPAP)

Horizon Engineering Associates, LLP (HEA) has conducted nearly 70 energy audits and retro-commissioning projects for LL87 compliance. The facilities have ranged from museums to hospitals. Just to put into perspective how effective energy audits and retro-commissioning has been, when we surveyed 9 buildings, HEA was able to identify over 70 energy conservation measures that, when implemented, will save over $3.36 million in energy costs annually.

Has your building complied with LL84 and LL87? Are you aware of early compliance? Is your city implementing similar laws to NYC’s PlaNYC? Share your experiences in the comments below!

My next post will highlight an energy audit and retro-commissioning case study and comment on my experience with retro-commissioning.

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Filed under Building efficiency, commissioning, Energy, energy audit, energy consumption, energy efficiency, energy usage, EPA, GHG

Existing Building Energy Consumption: Current Situations, Trends, Legislature and Solutions (Series Post #6: Retro-commissioning)

This blog series is focused on different methods to evaluate and reduce energy consumption of buildings. The demand for energy is increasing at an alarming rate and the building sector is one of the largest consumers of energy; gaining more and more prominence over the past few decades. Retro-commissioning is a proven process to help combat this problem. Let’s start with a quick overview of what building commissioning is.

Commissioning is a quality assurance process that provides documented confirmation that a building is operating at optimum level of the owner’s requirements. Commissioning ensures that building systems are planned, installed, tested, operated and maintained the way the owner intended. Commissioning often provides:
•    Increased energy efficiency
•    Maximized occupancy comfort
•    Extended life cycle of equipment
•    Reduces O&M costs

During the retro-commissioning process, existing building systems are inspected for physical, functional and performance conditions. All issues are documented and presented in a comprehensive report to the owner. Diagnostic test equipment is used to assess existing equipment efficiency and operating characteristics. This analysis is used to identify opportunities for energy conservation. The retro-commissioning process usually occurs in four distinct phases as illustrated below:

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A research study on commissioning and retro-commissioning performed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 2009 found that the average retro-commissioning project cost $0.30 per square foot with energy savings of 16% and with a simple payback of 1.1 years. Which brings us to the glaring question, why isn’t everyone doing this? Some possible reasons could be unfamiliarity with the retro-commissioning process and fear of any upfront costs. In order to overcome these hurdles, many cities across the nation are recognizing the importance of retro-commissioning/energy audits and are developing legislation that makes it a mandatory procedure. For example, New York City has developed PlaNYC, an agenda to meet energy challenges to building a greener, greater New York. Included in this plan is Local Law 84: Benchmarking and Local Law 87: Energy Audits and Retro-commissioning. In my next blog, I will discuss these laws in detail.

Do you have any questions regarding retro-commissioning? Drop me a line in the comments section below!

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Filed under Building efficiency, commissioning, Energy, energy audit, energy consumption, energy efficiency, energy usage

Existing Building Energy Consumption: Current Situations, Trends, Legislature and Solutions (Series Post #4: ASHRAE)

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and follows ANSI’s requirements for due process and standards development. ASHRAE has helped to mainstream the integrity of commissioning by setting guidelines and criteria for the commissioning process. ASHRAE has also partnered with the United Nations Environment Program to drive their global effort in reducing the amount of pollutants released into the atmosphere by buildings. ASHRAE has created an international advisory team to assist developing countries in their goals to institute and revamp relevant codes and standards.

In terms of building commissioning and retro-commissioning, ASHRAE developed Guideline 0 – Commissioning Process and Guideline, which details the process, intent, activities and deliverables that should be followed to optimize benefits. This document has incited the development of numerous supporting guidelines and standards for the commissioning process. In addition, ASHRAE also defined best practices and created different levels of energy audits (Preliminary Analysis, Level 1, 2 and 3).  If you are interested in learning more about these guidelines, visit ASHRAE’s website (https://www.ashrae.org). In particular, they have posted their Fall 2013 online courses here: https://www.ashrae.org/education–certification/2013-fall-online-courses. On October 9th there is a Commissioning for High Performance Buildings course and on November 4th and 6th there is a Commercial Building Energy Audits course.

As part of the PlaNYC initiative to have a more sustainable New York City, all buildings over 50,000 sf are required to file an Energy Efficiency Report (EER) with the New York City Department of Buildings (NYC DoB). This requirement is known as Local Law 87. The EER consists of an ASHRAE Level II energy audit and retro commissioning study of base building systems. Base building systems include systems or subsystems that use energy or impact energy consumption, including: building envelope, HVAC systems, conveying systems, domestic water systems and electrical/lighting systems. EERs are due to the NYC DoB once every 10 years starting this year. The EER reports are due in a staggered schedule, which is based on the last digit of the building’s tax block number.

Do you have any questions regarding ASHRAE and how they are involved with Local Law 87 legislature? Post them in the comments below. In my next blog, I will provide an overview of the second part of Local Law 87 compliance, retro-commissioning.

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Existing Building Energy Consumption: Current Situations, Trends, Legislature and Solutions (Series Post #3: Benchmarking)

In my last blog, I provided an overview of the energy audit process. I highlighted the importance of energy audits and want to further this discussion by exploring the topic of benchmarking. Due to rising energy cost and the negative impact of burning fossil fuels, legislators have been demanding, in addition to energy audits, benchmarking. The benchmarking process creates a baseline of comparison for buildings in order to accurately set energy performance/sustainability goals that are specific to your facility, such as reducing overall energy or water usage.

What is Benchmarking?
Benchmarking your building’s performance will show you how the energy performance of your building compares to other, similar buildings. This process involves tracking a building’s energy and water usage and applying a standard metric to compare the building’s performance against past performance and to buildings of similar stature. This information allows us to identify the energy intensive buildings, set energy and cost saving priorities and monitor progress.

Benchmarking in Legislation.
With cities growing at alarming rates, energy demands are skyrocketing. NYC has stepped up to the challenge and is a proven frontrunner for energy legislation, including benchmarking. New York City’s largest buildings, just 2% of roughly 1 million buildings, account for 45% of the energy expended. Building a better, greener, greater New York City starts with Local Law 84 (LL84); which was signed into action in 2009 by Mayor Bloomberg. This law mandates annual energy and water benchmark reports for privately owned buildings over 50,000 square feet. Since the enactment of LL84, California and Washington State have instituted statewide requirements for benchmarking in cities such as: Austin; Philadelphia; Washington, D.C.; Minneapolis and Boston. Cities across the United States are jumping on the benchmarking movement every day in a fight to reduce buildings’ energy consumption.

Problems with Benchmarking.
Building owners and operators often do not have access to basic information on how their building performs. If building owners and operators obtain this information, it can be difficult to interpret it accurately. Misinterpreting the numbers can be very misleading. Another difficulty is comparing your building to other “similar” buildings. Do you compare your building against one of similar size, but the building use is different? Factors such as facility size and occupancy information, vacancy data and number of computers used can all manipulate data. How can one make an accurate comparison?

Suggestions.
The key to accurate benchmarking is the activities of the end users. Another key factor is communication. Facilities operators and owners must clearly articulate the goals of benchmarking their building, so that intentions are understood from the start. There are several motivations behind benchmarking, the main reasons given by facilities professionals for benchmarking according to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory study in 2007 are as follows: a) to identify energy-efficiency opportunities, b) to prioritize investments, and c) to make comparisons to other facilities.

Data presentation should explain findings clearly; what you were investigating and what you found. Once you have your benchmarking data, it will help to identify why and where a building is losing energy and where and how you can save energy. A tool that can help includes the newly upgraded EPA Energy Star Portfolio Manager Benchmarking Tool. Read about it here.

What Type of Energy Audit Will Produce Accurate Benchmarking Data?
In my next blog post, I will discuss the building technology society founded in 1894 known as the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). This professional association focuses on building systems, energy efficiency, indoor air quality, refrigeration and sustainability within the industry. I will explore what ASHRAE’s standards and guidelines are for energy auditing in my next post.

Do you have any questions regarding benchmarking? Leave me a comment and I’ll be sure to address them.

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Filed under Building efficiency, Energy, energy audit, energy consumption, energy efficiency, energy monitoring, energy usage, EPA

Existing Building Energy Consumption: Current Situations, Trends, Legislature and Solutions (Series Post #2: Energy Audits)

Right now, many building managers do not have access to the information needed to make the most energy efficient capital improvement decisions. Information such as energy saving measures, paybacks and life cycle costs of implementing energy efficient strategies are integral. This barrier has deterred the momentum of energy efficient building systems. The solution to help building managers make energy efficient capital improvement decisions are energy audits. Energy audits can identify where energy is being expended (and/or wasted) and provide methods for improving a building’s performance.

What is an energy audit?

An energy audit is a systematic approach to quantify how building systems are currently performing, how performance can be improved, what benefits will occur if these improvement are implemented and the cost and payback for each improvement. The goal of the audit is to identify ways to reduce energy consumption in the building by giving information to owners so they can make informed business decisions. I recommend applying an ASHRAE Level II energy audit, as it is simple yet comprehensive. Below are all the steps taken to achieve a Level II energy audit:

  • Preliminary Energy-Use Analysis: Includes a general space analysis, utility bill analysis, Energy Utilization Index generation and comparison to similar buildings.
  • Level 1: Walk-through: Includes the investigation of operational practices via interview, space function analysis, rough estimates of energy end-use, identifies low or no cost changes to the facility or O&M procedures, potential capital improvements for further study and provides an initial estimate of potential costs and savings.
  • Level 2: Energy Survey & Analysis: Includes a review of mechanical, electrical and plumbing design and operation, maintenance problems, comparison of key operating parameters to design levels, annual energy end-use breakdown, equipment modifications and practical measures and financial and cost analysis.

Who can perform an energy audit?
Energy audits can be facilitated by owners/facility managers ,however, public utility and independent, private sector companies will provide important third party perspective.
There are many individuals that can perform energy audits, but who is truly qualified? According to NYC, the following five types of certifications are approved to provide PlaNYC Local Law 87: Energy Audit and Retro-commissioning (to be discussed as a future topic):

  • NYSERDA approved FlexTech consultants
  • Certified Energy Manager (CEM)
  • Certified Energy Auditor (CEA)
  • High Performance Building Design Professional (HPBD)
  • Multi-family Building Analyst (MFBA)

Have you had an energy audit done on your building? Share your experiences in the comments below. My next blog will explain the term benchmarking, which can help you to understand how your building operates in comparison to similar buildings and explain why this is important.

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Keep Your Money from Going Out the Window

We’ve all been told as children – “Turn off the lights when you’re not in the room” and “Don’t leave the water running when you’re brushing your teeth.” Now, there’s so much more we can do to conserve energy and resources in our homes and businesses. There is heightened awareness that our “small and insignificant” actions collectively have great impact on the environment and personal/corporate budgets.

To know how much energy we spend (or waste); we need to assess the situation and come up with a baseline. Just like we all go to the doctor every year and take our cars in for inspection, our homes and offices need the same check-ups. Hence, the energy audit. In short, an energy audit is a way to determine the energy consumption of a building. These audits can help individuals see where money and energy are going out the window (sometimes literally). For one of our clients, we found they were using 2.28 times the average electricity and 1.65 times the natural gas for buildings of their type. We identified 15 Energy Conservation Measures totaling a possible savings of $615,000 and approximately 30% reduction in energy use. These audits help identify troublespots in the property and methods for improving the building’s performance. Alterations can be as simple as changing light bulbs or as complex as overhauling the heating and cooling systems.

Being efficient is more than saving money; it’s about preserving our natural resources and minimizing our impact on the environment. Many elite corporations are leading the charge by greening their business practices and supply chains. They’re educating their employees on how to make eco-friendly decisions. Further, they’re investing in their buildings via retrofits and even building according to green standards such as LEED.

Building green is booming because this generation demands socially responsible corporations and healthful work environments. Unfortunately, some still cite heavy upfront costs as an obstacle to building green – materials are more expensive, the LEED process comes with additional costs and it just takes more planning and innovation.

Great ideas, innovation and progress come from challenging situations fraught with limited resources. In the case of building green, the financial aspect is favorable to the cause. A USGBC-funded study of LEED buildings in NYC found that there was no significant price differential for construction costs between LEED and traditional buildings. According to the analysis, the average construction cost for a LEED high-rise residential building was $440/sf and $436/sf for non-LEED. I think an extra $4/sf investment is worth it, especially since the returns include better air quality, lowered utility bills, increased productivity and less pollution-spewing buildings.

If we’re going to tackle the looming issue of global warming, we need to take one conscientious step at a time – whether it’s turning off the light, doing an energy audit, investing in a retrofit or starting from scratch and building green.

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